A Situation Analysis and Trends
Uganda faces low agricultural growth rates that are currently below the average population growth rate of 3.2% per annum and a target rate of 6% per annum that was set in 2003 by the African Union under the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP). The low growth rates highlight the challenge of reversing the declining per capita agricultural production and eradicating poverty in Uganda. Agricultural growth is considered to be an important instrument for poverty reduction and can be at least three times more effective in reducing poverty compared to growth from the rest of the economy (de Janvry and Sadoulet 2010). Rural poverty in developing countries, including Uganda can be attributed to the limited creation and facilitation of pro-poor investment options across households, and this continues to hamper agricultural growth (Headey et al. 2014).
Studies in Uganda show that access to productive assets, including all types of livestock, may provide rural households with a tremendous opportunity to generate income and to move out of poverty (Ellis and Bahiigwa 2003, Ellis and Freeman 2004, Lawson et al. 2006). Furthermore, Tatwangire (2011) reveals that low levels of productive asset endowments in rural Uganda have made access to livestock an important instrument of poverty reduction. Despite the high level of inequality in access to livestock, Tatwangire (2011) found a clear positive correlation between household welfare and access to additional livestock endowments (including pigs), after controlling for the endogeneity of livestock endowment and the unobserved heterogeneity. As such, the main objective of this situation analysis was to assess the conditions within which the pig value chains in Uganda operate. The analysis considers the past and present data to identify trends, forces, and conditions with the potential to influence the effective assessment, and in this case, the functioning of pig value chains in Uganda. This study therefore sets out a broader national context for rapid and in-depth piggery value chain assessments and analysis at site or small geographical scales through the subsequent research activities.